In 2003, the Texas legislature amended the Texas Education Code, taking a previously optional moment of silence and making it mandatory. The legislature also changed the designated list of options: previously a student could "reflect or meditate"; after the amendment, students could "reflect, pray, meditate, or engage in any other silent activity that is not likely to interfere with or distract another student." Read more
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Challenge to public-school district's grooming policy requiring boys to wear their hair short by parents of a Native American kindergartner who wears his hair long and in braids in accordance with his family's religious beliefs.
Challenge to monument of open King James Bible that was donated by the Star of Hope Mission and placed outside the entrance of the Harris County courthouse in Texas.
Challenge to decision by Louisiana to remove the word "silent" from a school-prayer statute.
Challenge to practice of local Louisiana school board to open meetings with an invocation, which often was sectarian prayer.
Challenge to local Louisiana school board's policy requiring teachers to recite a disclaimer before lessons on evolution.
Challenge to Texas public school district's "clergy-in-schools" program, whereby clergy served as counselors and mentors to students.