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Miller v. Davis

In June 2015, after the Supreme Court’s decision in Obergefell v. Hodges, which held that same-sex couples have a constitutionally protected right to marry, Rowan County Clerk Kim Davis refused to allow her office to issue marriage licenses to any couple, be they same-sex or different-sex. Davis stated that her religious beliefs forbade her from giving marriage licenses to same-sex couples, so she would not give out any marriage licenses at all.

Lexington-Fayette Urban County Human Rights Commission v. Hands on Originals

In March 2012, the Gay & Lesbian Services Organization of Lexington, Kentucky sought to purchase t-shirts from Hands on Originals, a local, for-profit, screen-printing shop. GLSO wanted to have the words “Lexington Pride Festival” and a multi-colored numeral “5” printed on the shirts (the shirts were for the locality’s fifth annual Pride Festival). HOO’s owner, upon learning what the Pride Festival represented, refused to serve the GLSO.

Dawson v. City of Grand Haven

In the 1960s, the City of Grand Haven erected a display pole on a large, publicly-owned sand dune overlooking the City’s waterfront. The pole could be raised or lowered as needed, and it could be fitted with either an anchor or a cross feature. The City equipped the pole with the cross feature both on its own initiative—for example, to celebrate the Christmas season—and at the request of City residents, who could pay a fee to use the cross as a backdrop for events on the waterfront. No other monuments were allowed on the sand dune. 

Gifford v. McCarthy

In September 2012, a same-sex couple attempted to book their wedding at Liberty Ridge Farms—a rustic event space in upstate New York. The farm’s owners refused to rent the venue to the couple, saying that same-sex marriages are “not what we wanted to have on the farm.” The couple filed a complaint with the New York State Division of Human Rights, alleging that the owners of the venue illegally discriminated against them based on their sexual orientation.

Ingersoll v. Arlene's Flowers

In March 2013, Robert Ingersoll sought to buy flower arrangements for his wedding from his favorite florist, Arlene’s Flowers, which is a for-profit florist shop. The store’s owner informed him that she would not serve him on this occasion, because she believed Ingersoll’s marriage to a man was a sin.

Duncan v. Nevada

In June 2015, the Nevada governor signed into law S.B. 302, which created the Education Savings Account Program. Through the program, parents may receive money from the state's public-school fund, which is deposited into an Education Savings Account, to pay for their child's education at a religious private school. Once the private school receives this funding, there are no prohibitions on how the public funds may be used, meaning that private schools are free to use these funds for religious instruction. 

School of the Ozarks v. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services

As part of the Affordable Care Act's implementing regulations, group health plans are required to include coverage for various forms of preventative care, including all FDA-approved methods of contraception. Houses of worship are exempt from these requirements, and the Department of Health and Human Services later created a broader accommodation for certain nonprofit organizations.

Hassan v. City of New York

In the months following the September 11 attacks, the New York City Police Department began a surveillance program targeting Muslim communities in New York City and the surrounding areas. The surveillance extended to Muslims in New Jersey, and included surveillance of mosques, private schools, Muslim-owned business establishments, and at least one Muslim student group.

Tanco v. Haslam

In 2006, Tennessee amended its state constitution to limit the legal definition of marriage to that between a man and a woman, and also prohibited the recognition of marriage licenses issued to same-sex couples in other states. Proponents of the amendment grounded their support in biblical terms. Representative Bill Dunn, one of the amendment’s most prominent supporters, went so far as to write a newspaper article justifying the amendment using quotations from Scripture. 
Three same-sex couples sued to invalidate Tennessee’s marriage ban.

Obergefell v. Hodges

Ohio amended its state constitution in 2004 to restrict the legal definition of marriage to that between a man and a woman, and further prohibited the recognition of a legal relationship that “approximate[s] the design, qualities, significance or effect of marriage.” Support for the amendment came mostly from religious organizations, and their arguments were couched in explicitly religious terms.
Several same-sex couples and an adoption agency challenged Ohio’s marriage ban.