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Waters v. Ricketts

In November 2014, several same-sex couples challenged the Nebraska laws that limited marriage to opposite-sex couples. In March 2015, the trial court granted a preliminary injunction to the plaintiffs, finding it likely that plaintiffs would prevail on their claim that Nebraska’s marriage laws violated the plaintiffs’ right to equal protection.

Rosenbrahn v. Daugaard

In May 2014, six same-sex couples challenged the South Dakota laws that limited marriage to opposite-sex couples. In January 2015, the trial court ruled that South Dakota had unconstitutionally denied the fundamental right to marry to same-sex couples.

Miller v. Davis

In June 2015, after the Supreme Court’s decision in Obergefell v. Hodges, which held that same-sex couples have a constitutionally protected right to marry, Rowan County Clerk Kim Davis refused to allow her office to issue marriage licenses to any couple, be they same-sex or different-sex. Davis stated that her religious beliefs forbade her from giving marriage licenses to same-sex couples, so she would not give out any marriage licenses at all.

Lexington-Fayette Urban County Human Rights Commission v. Hands on Originals

In March 2012, the Gay & Lesbian Services Organization of Lexington, Kentucky sought to purchase t-shirts from Hands on Originals, a local, for-profit, screen-printing shop. GLSO wanted to have the words “Lexington Pride Festival” and a multi-colored numeral “5” printed on the shirts (the shirts were for the locality’s fifth annual Pride Festival). HOO’s owner, upon learning what the Pride Festival represented, refused to serve the GLSO.

Lawson v. Kelly

Two same-sex couples challenged the Missouri laws that limited marriage to opposite-sex couples. In November 2014, the trial court ruled that Missouri had unconstitutionally denied the fundamental right to marry to same-sex couples.

Dawson v. City of Grand Haven

In the 1960s, the City of Grand Haven erected a display pole on a large, publicly-owned sand dune overlooking the City’s waterfront. The pole could be raised or lowered as needed, and it could be fitted with either an anchor or a cross feature. The City equipped the pole with the cross feature both on its own initiative—for example, to celebrate the Christmas season—and at the request of City residents, who could pay a fee to use the cross as a backdrop for events on the waterfront. No other monuments were allowed on the sand dune. 

Jernigan v. Crane

Two same-sex couples challenged the Arkansas marriage laws that limited marriage to between a man and a woman. In November 2014, the trial court struck down these laws as an unconstitutional violation of same-sex couples’ fundamental right to marry.

Gifford v. McCarthy

In September 2012, a same-sex couple attempted to book their wedding at Liberty Ridge Farms—a rustic event space in upstate New York. The farm’s owners refused to rent the venue to the couple, saying that same-sex marriages are “not what we wanted to have on the farm.” The couple filed a complaint with the New York State Division of Human Rights, alleging that the owners of the venue illegally discriminated against them based on their sexual orientation.

Ingersoll v. Arlene's Flowers

In March 2013, Robert Ingersoll sought to buy flower arrangements for his wedding from his favorite florist, Arlene’s Flowers, which is a for-profit florist shop. The store’s owner informed him that she would not serve him on this occasion, because she believed Ingersoll’s marriage to a man was a sin.

School of the Ozarks v. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services

As part of the Affordable Care Act's implementing regulations, group health plans are required to include coverage for various forms of preventative care, including all FDA-approved methods of contraception. Houses of worship are exempt from these requirements, and the Department of Health and Human Services later created a broader accommodation for certain nonprofit organizations.